Project Lead(s): Rohit Srivastava
The socio-economic impact of chronic renal disease (CRD) is alarming for developed and developing nations.
Chronic renal disease can be prevented by monitoring the raised urinary albumin/creatinine ratio in susceptible patients and treating patients with elevated levels to prevent progression to end-stage renal disease (ESRD).
The idea was to develop a low-cost, urine albumin/creatinine ratio dipstick, along with a phone-based strip reader, for use as a mass-screening tool.
Urinary albumin and creatinine test strips were developed and integrated with the urine dipstick reader, uChek, which quantifies ACR (albumin creatinine ratio).
uChek was installed in 147 health centres.
A total of 5,804 people were screened in Chandigarh. Of these, 2,919 of the screened population were males and 2,885 were females.
Normal scores were detected in 4,553 cases (78.45%) of those screened.
Overt proteinuria was detected in 155 cases (2.67%) and could be attributable to CRD, renal infection or contamination of the urine sample.
High ACR values accounted for 1,096 cases (18.9%) and these were referred for follow-up.
Results of the validation study showed more than 95% sensitivity and specificity, with a positive predictive value of about 87% and a negative predictive value of about 99%.
There was a striking increase in the number of people willing to undergo a test after a short briefing about the ACR and its importance, and how it would be beneficial to them.
The project team is planning to incorporate the use of uChek and ACR strips with a strong local municipal corporation to measure the effectiveness of such a technology from a preventive medicine point of view.
The team was negotiating with the Navi Mumbai Municipal Corporation, as well as other State Governments, to include uChek and ACR kits in the next financial budget as a screening tool at their urban health centres.